Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also known as human herpesvirus 4, is a member of the herpes vi khuẩn family. It is one of the most common human viruses. EBV is found all over the world. Most people get infected with EBV at some point in their lives. EBV spreads most commonly through bodily fluids, primarily saliva. EBV can cause infectious mononucleosis, also called mono, and other illnesses.

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Symptoms

Symptoms of EBV infection can include


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fatiguefeverinflamed throatswollen lymph nodes in the neckenlarged spleenswollen liverrash

Many people become infected with EBV in childhood. EBV infections in children usually vị not cause symptoms, or the symptoms are not distinguishable from other mild, brief childhood illnesses. People who get symptoms from EBV infection, usually teenagers or adults, get better in two to lớn four weeks. However, some people may feel fatigued for several weeks or even months.

After you get an EBV infection, the virus becomes latent (inactive) in your body. In some cases, the virus may reactivate. This does not always cause symptoms, but people with weakened immune systems are more likely lớn develop symptoms if EBV reactivates.


EBV Spreads Easily

EBV is spread by saliva through:

kissingsharing drinks and foodusing the same cups, eating utensils, or toothbrusheshaving liên hệ with toys that children have drooled on

Transmission

EBV spreads most commonly through bodily fluids, especially saliva. However, EBV can also spread through blood & semen during sexual contact, blood transfusions, and organ transplantations.

EBV can be spread by using objects, such as a toothbrush or drinking glass, that an infected person recently used. The vi khuẩn probably survives on an object at least as long as the object remains moist.

The first time you get infected with EBV (primary EBV infection) you can spread the virus for weeks and even before you have symptoms. Once the virut is in your body, it stays there in a latent (inactive) state. If the vi khuẩn reactivates, you can potentially spread EBV lớn others no matter how much time has passed since the initial infection.

Diagnosis

Diagnosing EBV infection can be challenging because thesymptoms are similar khổng lồ other illnesses. EBV infection can be confirmed with a blood test that detects antibodies. About nine out of ten of adults have antibodies that show that they have a current or past EBV infection.

For more information, see Laboratory Testing.

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Prevention và Treatment

There is no vaccine to lớn protect against EBV infection. You can help protect yourself by not kissing or sharing drinks, food, or personal items, lượt thích toothbrushes, with people who have EBV infection.

There is no specific treatment for EBV. However, some things can be done lớn help relieve symptoms, including

drinking fluids to lớn stay hydratedgetting plenty of resttaking over-the-counter medications for pain & fever
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